Islam in its primary meanings refers to voluntary submission or self-surrender to the monotheistic God – Allah – whose creative power and reality are deemed to transcend human comprehension. Rather than speculate about God’s existence or non-existence, humans are urged to observe God’s instructions as revealed by the prophet Muhammad in the Quran, the record of divine revelations supposedly conveyed to him from the time of his first call in the region of Mecca (around 610 CE) till his death in the city of Medina in 632.

The Quran contains a certain amount of legislative material (up to 600 ...


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