In July 2022, Norwegian oil and gas workers downed tools and went on strike over pay. Just one strike day later, the government had intervened. “Norway plays a vital role in supplying gas to Europe, and the planned escalation would have had serious consequences, for Britain, Germany and other nations,” labour minister Marte Mjøs Persen told Reuters.

The speed at which the government stepped in shows us the centrality of energy in the modern global economy. And yet this centrality may also go some way towards explaining why the energy sector is so difficult to transform, why energy companies ...


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