We are now approaching the era of the ‘circular economy’, and not a moment too soon. Finland has adopted the circular economy as national policy; in London agencies are using this model to meet the mayor’s aim of becoming a zero-waste city.

A true circular economy would produce no waste at all: raw materials would make the original product, and at the end of its life this product would be broken down to provide the raw materials for the next. There would be no crisis of single-use plastics, no tsunami of waste in our seas, no exhaustion of natural resources – from gold to forest.

The ...


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